Friday, May 18, 2007

Old, wise, and happy

As we grow older, we experience a number of cognitive changes, such as poorer working memory, declining ability to encode new memories, and slower processing speeds. By contrast, a number of critical abilities (short-term memory, autobiographical memory, semantic knowledge) remain stable. One of the major avenues of research for the cognitive neuroscience of aging explores how these behavioral changes correlate with changes in neural structure and function. Such studies, which rely heavily on neuroimaging techniques, have revealed that older adults have lower volumes of grey matter than do younger adults, primarily as a result of decreased synaptic density (i.e. the number of connections ("synapses") between neurons). Particularly affected are the prefrontal cortex (PFC), highly involved in processing speed, attention, and working memory, and medial temporal structures such as the hippocampus, which is involved in encoding information into episodic memories.

One ability which is not believed to decline with age is emotional processing. In fact, recent behavioral studies suggest that healthy older adults may actually perform better on tasks involving the processing of emotional stimuli than younger adults, and tend to have an enhanced experience of positive emotions and/or reduced experiences of negative emotions. To date, however, little is known of the structural and functional integrity of the neural regions associated with emotional processing, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, located in the middle of the brain right behind the PFC, may be important for one's conscious subjective emotional awareness), insula (important for "bodily" experiences of emotion, e.g. heart rate, breathing), and ventral striatum (involved in motivation and goal-directed positive emotion). How is the activation of these regions during emotional processing affected by age?

To understand the biology of such age-associated changes, Brian Knutson and Laura Carstensen at Stanford used fMRI to examine brain activity during emotional "incentive processing" tasks (i.e. anticipation of a loss or gain) in younger (19-27) and older (65-81) adults, and recently published their results online in Nature Neuroscience.

Participants viewed one of six cues, which displayed the amount of money that could be gained or lost on a certain trial (+$0, +$0.50, +$5.00, or - the same amounts). They were then presented with a target, and if they responded quickly enough they either gained or avoided losing the specified amount. Both age groups performed equivalently, earning similar amounts.

According to data reported by the participants, both younger and older adults felt similarly in anticipation of gaining money, but younger adults responded more strongly in response to anticipation of monetary loss. In other words, the older adults experiences less negative emotion in response to the same cues. This difference has been previously observed, but it may have been due to a bias in self-reports; thus, the researchers used fMRI to look for neural correlates of these behavioral differences.

They found that during reward anticipation (after participants saw the cue, but before they responded to the target), both younger and older adults showed equal levels of activation of the ventral striatum, anterior insula, and medial caudate (part of the dorsal striatum). During loss anticipation, however, younger adults had greater activation of the medial caudate and anterior insula than their elders. Thus, both affective and neural data indicate that older adults experience diminished negative emotions in response to loss anticipation, but retain their abilities to respond positively to reward anticipation. The asymmetry with which age affects the functioning of these regions is intriguing; clearly, they are still capable of normal levels of activation, but are somehow dampened during certain negative emotions.

The authors comment that the "age-related sparing of positive emotional experience may be related to efforts to optimize emotional experiences as one approaches the end of life. One aspect of this optimization may involve reducing negative arousal during anticipation of negative events." This sounds quite rosy to me, but the authors also mention that reduced emotional reactions to anticipated loss may have negative effects. Older people may have, for example, altered abilities of risk assessment, which may lead to sub-optimal decision making. Nevertheless, the overall enhancement of well-being may be worth the risk.

Reference: Larkin GRS, Gibbs SEB, Khanna K, Nielsen L, Carstensen LL, Knutson B. (2007). Anticipation of monetary gain but not loss in healthy older adults. Nature Neuroscience Apr 29; [Epub ahead of print]

18 comments:

Anonymous said...

To me it seems simple. The older people (65-81 yr old) are statistically close to their end of life. And at that point of time a test subject is statistically less likely to care about financial loss of $5. Result of a simple psychological bias that the older people could easily develop.

宇韩 said...

wow gold
wow gold
eve isk
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
wow power leveling
warhammer gold
warhammer power leveling
bestchina traveland
uggsor
ghd straighteners

Cardi Ugg Boots
Classic Short Ugg Boots

Classic Tall Ugg Boots
Metallic Ugg Boots

Mini Ugg Boots
Sundance Ugg Boots

tiffany Jewelry

Anonymous said...

Do you like playing in the game where you need to use runescape gold, when you do not buy runescape, you must borrowrs gold from friends, or you get runescape money. If you getcheap rs gold, you can continue this game.

Anonymous said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店領檯,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,酒店兼職,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,酒店兼職,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店經紀,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店小姐,酒店傳播,酒店經紀人,酒店,酒店,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,暑假打工,招待所,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒假打工,酒店上班,暑假打工,酒店公關,酒店兼職,禮服店 , 酒店小姐 ,酒店經紀 ,酒店兼差,暑假打工,酒店,酒店,酒店經紀,酒店領檯 ,禮服店 ,酒店小姐 ,酒店經紀 ,酒店兼差,暑假打工, 酒店上班,禮服店 ,酒店小姐 ,酒店經紀 ,酒店兼差,暑假打工, 酒店上班,禮服店 ,酒店小姐 ,酒店經紀 ,酒店兼差,暑假打工, 酒店上班,酒店經紀

cheap wow gold said...

If you are cheap wow gold trying any unknown cheats to earn gold, you would cheapest wow gold face some problem and your account will be black out. So don't try to wow gold find cheats instead try to world of warcraft gold sale follow the guideline of world of warcraft. These tips could Cheap Wow Goldwork as gold cheat and can help a lot to earn gold and money. World of Warcraft is the most exiting online game and while Playing the game most of the players struggle wow power leveling to earn a lot of gold.

Most of the players World Of Warcraft Goldtry search cheat code for this game to earn gold. This wow gold cheaparticle will help Wow Goldyou a lot to earn more and more gold.The best way to earn gold in this online game is by going through the guidelines wow gold for saleand other information about itemchannel.comthe game that are available on the internet .

酒店上班請找艾葳 said...

艾葳酒店經紀公司提供專業的酒店經紀, 酒店上班小姐,八大行業,酒店兼職,傳播妹,或者想要打工兼差打工,兼差,八大行業,酒店兼職,想去酒店上班, 日式酒店,便服店,制服酒店,ktv酒店,禮服店,整天穿得水水漂漂的,還是想去制服店日領上班小姐,水水們如果想要擁有打工工作、晚上兼差工作兼差打工假日兼職兼職工作酒店兼差兼差打工兼差日領工作晚上兼差工作酒店工作酒店上班酒店打工兼職兼差兼差工作酒店上班等,想了解酒店相關工作特種行業內容,想兼職工作日領假日兼職兼差打工、或晚班兼職想擁有鋼琴酒吧又有保障的工作嗎???又可以現領請找專業又有保障的艾葳酒店經紀公司!

艾葳酒店經紀是合法的公司工作環境高雅時尚,無業績壓力,無脫秀無喝酒壓力,高層次會員制客源,工作輕鬆,可日領現領
一般的酒店經紀只會在水水們第一次上班和領薪水時出現而已,對水水們的上班安全一點保障都沒有!艾葳酒店經紀公司的水水們上班時全程媽咪作陪,不需擔心!只提供最優質的酒店上班,酒店上班,酒店打工環境、上班條件給水水們。心動嗎!? 趕快來填寫你的酒店上班履歷表

水水們妳有缺現領、想要兼職、有缺錢的煩腦嗎?想到日本留學缺錢嗎?妳是傳播妹??想要擁有高時薪又輕鬆的賺錢,酒店和,假日打工,假日兼職賺錢的機會嗎??想實現夢想卻又缺錢沒錢嗎!??
艾葳酒店台北酒店經紀招兵買馬!!徵專業的酒店打工,想要去酒店的水水,想要短期日領,酒店日領,禮服酒店,制服店,酒店經紀,ktv酒店,便服店,酒店工作,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀人,
等相關服務 幫您快速的實現您的夢想~!!

Apa Saja Dah said...

Find and download that you need at Rapidshare Search Engine.
Top Site List Free Proxy Site Free Download mp3 Michael Jackson song All Michael Jackson Lyrics Hollywood Celebrity Gossip Download Mp3 Gratis

Anonymous said...

Internet Logos | Security Logos | Transport Logos

Anonymous said...

Charity Logo | Clothing Logos

com_news said...

THANKS! You guys do a great blog, and have some great contents. Keep up the good work.

ซื้อขายลงโฆษณาฟรีลงประกาศฟรีของมือสองfree classifiedads buybattery duracell aaa charger facial hair laser removal ละคร บอร์ดโคตรฮิต pet classified ดูทีวีย้อนหลัง ปาย เชียงใหม่ การลงทุน

raoliming2 said...

louis vuitton
replica handbags
Handbags
balenciaga replica handbags
chanel replica handbags
chloe replica handbags
fendi replica handbags
gucci replica handbags
hermes replica handbags
louis vuitton replica handbags
miumiu replica handbags
prada replica handbags
ysl replica handbags
chanel replica handbags
gucci replica handbags
louis vuitton replica handbags
balenciaga replica handbags
chanel replica handbags
chloe replica handbags
fendi replica handbags
gucci replica handbags
hermes replica handbags
louis vuitton replica handbags
miumiu replica handbags
prada replica handbags
ysl replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags
fake designer handbags
discount replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags
designer replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags
fake replica handbags
fake replica handbags
replica handbags
replica handbags

longge said...

Be abiding to do a seek on the internet for the accomplish and appearance of Louis vuitton bags
you wish and you will get the after-effects for any website with that exact louis vuitton handbags
, this includes accepting your 2009 lv
. You will acquisition a louis vuitton
for annihilation in your life.

kiara said...

Manuel Antonio Costa Rica,,
Costa Rica Carara Biological,,
Arenal Volcano Costa Rica,
Costa Rica Crocodile Aventure,
Costa Rica Poas Volcano,
Monteverde Costa Rica,
Costa rica Sea Kayaking,
Costa rica Rafting,
Costa rica Atv Adventure,
Canopy Costa rica Tours,
Rainforest Tour Costarica,
Vacation Rentals,
Groups Travel,
Los Suenos Costa rica Tours,
Costa rica Tours,
Costa Rica Zip Line,
Costa Rica Vacation,
Costa Rica los Suenos Vacation Rentals,
Costa Rica los Suenos Fishing,
Costa Rica los Suenos Condos,
Costa Rica los Suenos Sportfishing,
los Suenos Resort,
Costa Rica Whale Watching Tours,
Costa Rica Dominical,
Costa Rica DCM Incentive,

Affordable seo services said...

Great webpage! I dont imagine Ive seen every one of the angles of this theme the way in which youve pointed them out. Youre a accurate star, a rock star guy. Vending Machine Locators Youve got a great deal to say and know so much about the subject that i think you ought to just teach a class about it. Vending Machine Locator,nike dunks

Anonymous said...

To be a noble benign being is to have a amiable of openness to the in the seventh heaven, an ability to trusteeship uncertain things beyond your own restrain, that can take you to be shattered in hugely exceptional circumstances pro which you were not to blame. That says something uncommonly impressive thither the fettle of the principled passion: that it is based on a trustworthiness in the up in the air and on a willingness to be exposed; it's based on being more like a plant than like a sparkler, something fairly tenuous, but whose mere special attractiveness is inseparable from that fragility.

office said...

Realizing he might have dug himself in there,Microsoft Office 2010the general emphasized that Office 2010he had spent some time as a junior Office 2007officer working "very closely Microsoft Officewith the Israeli air force" and that heMicrosoft Office 2007had found that "more cosmopolitan,Office 2007 key liberal version of the Israeli population" Office 2007 downloadto be just chock full Office 2007 Professionalof that sort of "goodwill" necessary Windows 7to give a bunch of land back Microsoft outlook 2010to the Palestinians.

Jonathan said...

Pretty much the greatest thing I've ever read or heard on the subject.

-----------------------------
Baby Quilt

Jonathan said...

I just wanted to tell you how much I enjoyed your blog.

I enjoy your blog and like yourself I’m currently 21, a college student, and quickly looking to develop myself on the web.

I currently work at my university as the web design and developer and personally I’m developing my own website.

I’m impressed with what you’ve done so far and hope to see more of your work in the future.
---------------------------
Lanyard Patterns
Estrogen Dominance Symptoms
Oil Furnace Ratings
Glass Office Dividers
Scotts Liquid Lawn Fertilizer
Reznor Waste Oil Furnace
Discount Coverlets
Glass Office Dividers